In this post I will cover some basic concepts on the analysis of a very important class of NMR experiments, the so-called Arrayed NMR spectra. The concept is very simple: an arrayed experiment is basically a set of individual spectra acquired sequentially and related to each other through the variation of one or more parameters and finally grouped together to constitute a composite experiment. These experiments are also known as ‘pseudo-2D’. For example, in the case of Bruker spectra they have the same file name as 2D spectra, that is ser files (ser = serial spectra) . In the case of Varian, the file name is fid (Varian uses the same name for 1D, 2D, 3D, … and arrayed spectra). However, unlike with actual 2D spectra, arrayed spectra are only transformed along the F2 –horizontal or direct- dimension (assuming 1D arrayed spectra only).
Well known examples of NMR arrayed experiments are, among others:
The modus operandi is better explained with an example: let’s suppose it is necessary to acquire a pulse field gradient (PFG) experiment. Instead of acquiring independent spectra, it is more convenient to create an array with increasing PFG amplitudes. All resulting spectra are now treated as a single experiment. This grouping greatly facilitates processing as, in general, all subspectra require the same processing operations (apart from some occasional minor adjustments of one or several spectra). More about this in a moment.
- Relaxation (T1, T2)
- PFG experiments (DOSY)
- Kinetics and reaction monitoring by NMR
Any good NMR processing software should be able to automatically recognize when an NMR spectrum is an arrayed experiment and will setup all processing operations accordingly. For example, the figure below illustrates the results obtained when a Bruker arrayed folder is dragged and dropped into Mnova:
What has happened here are basically 2 things:
- First, Mnova detects that the dropped folder contains an arrayed experiment
- With that knowledge in hand, Mnova proceeds to process all the individual spectra, one after the other and of course, along the only valid dimension (F2). So for every spectrum, Mnova applies appropriate weighting, zero filling, FT, phase correction, etc and stacks all the spectra as shown in the picture above
As a result, all individual spectra grouped within one composite item (i.e. arrayed item) have been processed in the same way. However, it’s very common that some subspectra might require independent tuning. For example, many PFG NMR experiments present gradient dependent phase shift so that it becomes necessary to adjust the phase of some individual spectra separately. This is very easy to accomplish with Mnova and it will be the subject of my next post.